A database is a set of information which is organized in such a way that it is easily accessible, managed and updated. Computer databases usually contain aggregations of data records or files, containing information about sales transactions or interactions with specific customers.
In a relational database, digital information about a specific customer is organized into rows, columns, and tables that are indexed to make it easier to find relevant information through SQL or NoSQL queries. On the other hand, a graphical database uses nodes and edges to define relationships between data inputs and queries require a semantic search syntax. As of this writing, SPARQL is the only semantic query language approved by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
Typically, the Database Manager provides users with the ability to control read / write access, specify reporting, and analyze usage. Some databases offer ACID (atomicity, coherence, isolation and sustainability) conformity to guarantee the consistency of data and the completeness of transactions.
Types of databases
Databases have evolved from their inception in the 1960s, starting with hierarchical and networked databases, until the 1980s with object oriented databases, and today with SQL and NoSQL databases and cloud databases.
In a view, databases can be categorized by content type: bibliographic, full-text, digital, and images. In computer science, databases are sometimes classified according to their organizational approach. There are many types of databases, ranging from the most popular approach, the relational database, to a distributed database, cloud database, graphical database or NoSQL database.
A relational database, invented by EF Codd at IBM in 1970, is a tabular database in which data is defined so that it can be reorganized and accessed in different ways.
Relational databases are made up of a set of tables with data that falls into a predefined category. Each table has at least one category of data in a column, and each row has a certain instance of data for the categories that are defined in the columns.
Structured Query Language (SQL) is the standard user interface and application program for a relational database. Relational databases are easy to extend, and a new category of data can be added after the original database is created without you having to modify any existing applications.
A distributed database is a database in which parts of the database are stored in multiple physical locations and in which processing is dispersed or replicated between different points in a network.
Distributed databases can be homogeneous or heterogeneous. All physical locations in a homogeneous whole distributed database system have the same underlying hardware and run the same operating systems and database applications. The hardware, operating systems, or database applications in a heterogeneous distributed database may be different in each of the locations.
A cloud database is a database optimized or created for a virtualized environment, whether in a hybrid cloud, public cloud, or private cloud. Cloud databases offer benefits such as the ability to pay for storage capacity and bandwidth as you use them, and they offer scalability on demand, as well as high availability.
A cloud database also gives businesses the ability to support line-of-business applications in a software as a service deployment.
NoSQL databases are useful for large distributed datasets.
NoSQL databases are good for big data performance problems that relational databases are not designed to solve. They are most effective when an organization needs to analyze large chunks of unstructured data or data stored on multiple Virtual servers in the cloud.
Object oriented database
Items created using object oriented programming languages are often stored in relational databases, but object-oriented databases are well suited to these elements.
An object-oriented database is organized around objects rather than actions, and data rather than logic. For example, a media record in a relational database can be a definable data object, as opposed to an alphanumeric value.
A graph-oriented database, or graphical database, is a type of NoSQL database that uses graph theory to store, map, and query relationships. Graph databases are essentially collections of nodes and edges, where each node represents an entity and each edge represents a connection between nodes.
Graphics databases often employ SPARQL, a declarative programming language and protocol for graphical database analytic. SPARQL has the ability to perform all the analyzes that SQL can perform, the more it can be used for semantic analysis, examination of relationships. This makes it useful for performing analyzes on datasets that have both structure and unstructured The data. SPARQL allows users to perform analysis on information stored in a relational database, as well as on Friend of a Friend (FOAF) relationships, Ranking and shortest path.